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Battle of Stalingrad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For the 1949 Russian film, see The Battle of Stalingrad (film). For the Russian Civil War battle at the same city, see Battle for Tsaritsyn. Battle of Stalingrad Part of the Eastern Front of World War II Bundesarchiv Bild 183-W0506-316, Russland, Kampf um Stalingrad, Siegesflagge.jpg
A Soviet soldier waving the Red Banner over the central plaza of Stalingrad in 1943. Date 23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943
(5 months, 1 week and 3 days) Location Stalingrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
48°42′N 44°31′E  /  48.700°N 44.517°E  / 48.700; 44.517 Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E  /  48.700°N 44.517°E  / 48.700; 44.517 Result

Decisive Soviet victory [1]

Belligerents   Soviet Union Commanders and leaders Units involved

Nazi Germany Army Group B:

Strength Initial: At the time of the Soviet counter-offensive: Initial: At the time of the Soviet counteroffensive: Casualties and losses See casualties section See casualties section Battle of Stalingrad is located in European Russia Battle of Stalingrad Location of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) within modern European Russia Eastern Front Naval warfare

1941

1942

1943

1944

1945

Case Blue to 3rd Kharkov Romanian military actions in World War II As part of the Axis (1941–1944) As part of the Allies (1944–1945) Battle of Stalingrad Case Blue: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942    to 7 July 1942    to 22 July 1942    to 1 August 1942    to 18 November 1942

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) [8] [9] [10] [11] was a major confrontation of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.

Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in air raids, it is often regarded as one of the single largest (nearly 2.2 million personnel) and bloodiest (1.7–2 million killed, wounded or captured) battles in the history of warfare. [12] It was an extremely costly defeat for German forces, and the Army High Command had to withdraw vast military forces from the West to replace their losses. [1]

The German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble. The fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting; both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River.

On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus , a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian armies protecting the German 6th Army's flanks. [13] The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out; instead, attempts were made to supply the army by air and to break the encirclement from the outside. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food. The remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. [14] : 932 The battle lasted five months, one week and three days.

Contents

Background

By the spring of 1942, despite the failure of Operation Barbarossa to decisively defeat the Soviet Union in a single campaign, the Wehrmacht had captured vast expanses of territory, including Ukraine, Belarus, and the Baltic republics. Elsewhere, the war had been progressing well: the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been very successful and Erwin Rommel had just captured Tobruk. [15] : 522 In the east, they had stabilized their front in a line running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not particularly threatening. Hitler was confident that he could master the Red Army after the winter of 1942, because even though Army Group Centre ( Heeresgruppe Mitte ) had suffered heavy losses west of Moscow the previous winter, 65% of it's infantry had not been engaged and had been rested and re-equipped. Neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been particularly hard pressed over the winter. [16] : 144 Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again. [1] : 498

With the initial operations being very successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union. The initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the industrial capacity of the city and the deployment of forces to block the Volga River. The river was a key route from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to central Russia. Its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields when they captured Rostov on 23 July. The capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult. [14] : 909 [17] [18] : 88

On 23 July 1942, Hitler personally rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign, greatly expanding them to include the occupation of the city of Stalingrad. Both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city, based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union. Hitler proclaimed that after Stalingrad's capture, its male citizens were to be killed and all women and children were to be deported because its population was "thoroughly communistic" and "especially dangerous". [19] It was assumed that the fall of the city would also firmly secure the northern and western flanks of the German armies as they advanced on Baku, with the aim of securing these strategic petroleum resources for Germany. [15] : 528 The expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germany's failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence and an underestimation of Soviet reserves. [20]

The Soviets realized that they were under tremendous constraints of time and resources and ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight. [21] : 94

Prelude

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main article: Case Blue

If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny then I must finish [ liquidieren ; "kill off", "liquidate"] this war.

—  Adolf Hitler [15] : 514

Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there. The planned summer offensive was code-named Fall Blau (Case Blue). It was to include the German 6th, 17th, 4th Panzer and 1st Panzer Armies. Army Group South had overrun the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1941. Poised in Eastern Ukraine, it was to spearhead the offensive.

Hitler intervened, however, ordering the Army Group to split in two. Army Group South (A), under the command of Wilhelm List, was to continue advancing south towards the Caucasus as planned with the 17th Army and First Panzer Army. Army Group South (B), including Friedrich Paulus's 6th Army and Hermann Hoth's 4th Panzer Army, was to move east towards the Volga and Stalingrad. Army Group B was commanded initially by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and later by General Maximilian von Weichs. [14] : 915

The German advance to the Don River between 7 May and 23 July.

The start of Case Blue had been planned for late May 1942. A number of German and Romanian units that were to take part in Blau , however, were besieging Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. Delays in ending the siege pushed back the start date for Blau several times, and the city did not fall until the end of June.

Operation Fridericus I by the Germans against the "Isium bulge", pinched off the Soviet salient in the Second Battle of Kharkov, and resulted in the envelopment of a large Soviet force between 17 May and 29 May. Similarly, Operation Wilhelm attacked Voltshansk on 13 June and Operation Fridericus attacked Kupiansk on 22 June. [22]

Blau finally opened as Army Group South began its attack into southern Russia on 28 June 1942. The German offensive started well. Soviet forces offered little resistance in the vast empty steppes and started streaming eastward. Several attempts to re-establish a defensive line failed when German units outflanked them. Two major pockets were formed and destroyed: the first, northeast of Kharkov, on 2 July, and a second, around Millerovo, Rostov Oblast, a week later. Meanwhile, the Hungarian 2nd Army and the German 4th Panzer Army had launched an assault on Voronezh, capturing the city on 5 July.

Situation briefing near Stalingrad between a company commander and a platoon leader

The initial advance of the 6th Army was so successful that Hitler intervened and ordered the 4th Panzer Army to join Army Group South (A) to the south. A massive traffic jam resulted when the 4th Panzer and the 1st Panzer both required the few roads in the area. Both armies were stopped dead while they attempted to clear the resulting mess of thousands of vehicles. The delay was long, and it is thought that it cost the advance at least one week. With the advance now slowed, Hitler changed his mind and reassigned the 4th Panzer Army back to the attack on Stalingrad.

By the end of July, the Germans had pushed the Soviets across the Don River. At this point, the Don and Volga Rivers were only 65 km (40 mi) apart, and the Germans left their main supply depots west of the Don, which had important implications later in the course of the battle. The Germans began using the armies of their Italian, Hungarian and Romanian allies to guard their left (northern) flank. Ocassionally Italian actions were mentioned in official German communiques. [23] [24] [25] [26] Italian forces were generally held in little regard by the Germans, and were accused of having low morale: in reality, the Italian divisions fought comparatively well, with the 3rd Mountain Infantry Division Ravenna and 5th Infantry Division Cosseria proving to have good morale, according to a German liaison officer [27] and being forced to retreat only after a massive armoured attack in which German reinforcements had failed to arrive in time, according to a German historian. [28] Indeed the Italians distinguished themselves in numerous battles, as in the battle of Nikolayevka.

Infantry and a supporting StuG III assault gun advance towards the city centre

On 25 July the Germans faced stiff resistance with a Soviet bridgehead west of Kalach. "We had had to pay a high cost in men and material...left on the Kalatch battlefield were numerous burnt-out or shot-up German tanks." [22] : 33–34, 39–40

The Germans formed bridgeheads across the Don on 20 Aug. with the 295th and 76th Infantry Divisions, enabling the XIVth Panzer Corps "to thrust to the Volga north of Stalingrad." The German 6th Army was only a few dozen kilometers from Stalingrad. The 4th Panzer Army, ordered south on 13 July to block the Soviet retreat "weakened by the 17th Army and the 1st Panzer Army", had turned northwards to help take the city from the south. [22] : 28, 30, 40, 48, 57

To the south, Army Group A was pushing far into the Caucasus, but their advance slowed as supply lines grew overextended. The two German army groups were not positioned to support one another due to the great distances involved.

After German intentions became clear in July 1942, Stalin appointed Marshal Andrey Yeryomenko as commander of the Southeastern Front on 1 August 1942. Yeryomenko and Commissar Nikita Khrushchev were tasked with planning the defense of Stalingrad. [29] : 25, 48 The eastern border of Stalingrad was the wide River Volga, and over the river, additional Soviet units were deployed. These units became the newly formed 62nd Army, which Yeryomenko placed under the command of Lieutenant General Vasiliy Chuikov on 11 September 1942. [22] : 80 The situation was extremely dire. When asked how he interpreted his task, he responded "We will defend the city or die in the attempt." [30] : 127 The 62nd Army's mission was to defend Stalingrad at all costs. Chuikov's generalship during the battle earned him one of his two Hero of the Soviet Union awards.

Attack on Stalingrad

The German advance to Stalingrad between 24 July and 18 November "Stalingrad-South", 1942 map from the German General Staff "Stalingrad-South", 1942 map from the German General Staff

David Glantz indicated [31] that four hard-fought battles – collectively known as the Kotluban Operations – north of Stalingrad, where the Soviets made their greatest stand, decided Germany's fate before the Nazis ever set foot in the city itself, and were a turning point in the war. Beginning in late August, continuing in September and into October, the Soviets committed between two and four armies in hastily coordinated and poorly controlled attacks against the German's northern flank. The actions resulted in more than 200,000 Red Army casualties but did slow the German assault.

On 23 August the 6th Army reached the outskirts of Stalingrad in pursuit of the 62nd and 64th Armies, which had fallen back into the city. Kleist later said after the war: [32]

The capture of Stalingrad was subsidiary to the main aim. It was only of importance as a convenient place, in the bottleneck between Don and the Volga, where we could block an attack on our flank by Russian forces coming from the east. At the start, Stalingrad was no more than a name on the map to us. [32]

The Soviets had enough warning of the Germans' advance to ship grain, cattle, and railway cars across the Volga and out of harm's way but most civilian residents were not evacuated. This "harvest victory" left the city short of food even before the German attack began. Before the Heer reached the city itself, the Luftwaffe had rendered the River Volga, vital for bringing supplies into the city, unusable to Soviet shipping. Between 25 and 31 July, 32 Soviet ships were sunk, with another nine crippled. [33] : 69

Smoke over the city center after aerial bombing by the German Luftwaffe on the central station

The battle began with the heavy bombing of the city by Generaloberst Wolfram von Richthofen's Luftflotte 4 , which in the summer and autumn of 1942 was the single most powerful air formation in the world. Some 1,000 tons of bombs were dropped in 48 hours, more than in London at the height of the Blitz. [2] : 122 Stalin refused to evacuate civilian population from the city, so when bombing began 400,000 civilians were trapped within city boundaries. The exact number of civilians killed during the course of the battle is unknown but was most likely very high. Around 40,000 were moved to Germany as slave workers, some fled the city during battle and a small number were evacuated by the Soviets. In February 1943 only between 10,000 to 60,000 civilians were still alive in Stalingrad. Much of the city was quickly turned to rubble, although some factories continued production while workers joined in the fighting. The Stalingrad Tractor Factory continued to turn out T-34 tanks literally until German troops burst into the plant. The 369th (Croatian) Reinforced Infantry Regiment was the only non-German unit [34] selected by the Wehrmacht to enter Stalingrad city during assault operations. It fought as part of the 100th Jäger Division.

German Infantry in position for an attack

Stalin rushed all available troops to the east bank of the Volga, some from as far away as Siberia. All the regular ferries were quickly destroyed by the Luftwaffe, which then targeted troop barges being towed slowly across the river by tugs. [29] It has been said that Stalin prevented civilians from leaving the city in the belief that their presence would encourage greater resistance from the city's defenders. [30] : 106 Civilians, including women and children, were put to work building trenchworks and protective fortifications. A massive German air raid on 23 August caused a firestorm, killing hundreds and turning Stalingrad into a vast landscape of rubble and burnt ruins. Ninety percent of the living space in the Voroshilovskiy area was destroyed. Between 23 and 26 August, Soviet reports indicate 955 people were killed and another 1,181 wounded as a result of the bombing. [2] : 73 Casualties of 40,000 were greatly exaggerated, [5] : 188–89 and after 25 August, the Soviets did not record any civilian and military casualties as a result of air raids. [Note 4]

Approaching this place, [Stalingrad], soldiers used to say: " We are entering hell. " And after spending one or two days here, they say: " No, this isn't hell, this is ten times worse than hell. " [35] Vasily Chuikov

The Soviet Air Force, the Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily (VVS), was swept aside by the Luftwaffe. The VVS bases in the immediate area lost 201 aircraft between 23 and 31 August, and despite meager reinforcements of some 100 aircraft in August, it was left with just 192 serviceable aircraft, 57 of which were fighters. [2] : 74 The Soviets continued to pour aerial reinforcements into the Stalingrad area in late September, but continued to suffer appalling losses; the Luftwaffe had complete control of the skies.

Soviets preparing to ward off a German assault in Stalingrad's suburbs

The burden of the initial defense of the city fell on the 1077th Anti-Aircraft Regiment, [30] : 106 a unit made up mainly of young female volunteers who had no training for engaging ground targets. Despite this, and with no support available from other units, the AA gunners stayed at their posts and took on the advancing panzers. The German 16th Panzer Division reportedly had to fight the 1077th's gunners "shot for shot" until all 37 anti-aircraft guns were destroyed or overrun. The 16th Panzer was shocked to find that, due to Soviet manpower shortages, it had been fighting female soldiers. [30] : 108 [36] In the early stages of the battle, the NKVD organized poorly armed "Workers' militias" composed of civilians not directly involved in war production for immediate use in the battle. The civilians were often sent into battle without rifles. [30] : 109 Staff and students from the local technical university formed a "tank destroyer" unit. They assembled tanks from leftover parts at the tractor factory. These tanks, unpainted and lacking gunsights, were driven directly from the factory floor to the front line. They could only be aimed at point-blank range through the gun barrel. [30] : 110

By the end of August, Army Group South (B) had finally reached the Volga, north of Stalingrad. Another advance to the river south of the city followed, while the Soviets abandoned their Rossoshka position for the inner defensive ring west of Stalingrad. The wings of the 6th Army and the 4th Panzer Army met near Jablotchni along the Zaritza on 2 Sept. [22] : 65 By 1 September, the Soviets could only reinforce and supply their forces in Stalingrad by perilous crossings of the Volga under constant bombardment by artillery and aircraft.

On 5 September, the Soviet 24th and 66th Armies organized a massive attack against XIV Panzer Corps. The Luftwaffe helped repulse the offensive by heavily attacking Soviet artillery positions and defensive lines. The Soviets were forced to withdraw at midday after only a few hours. Of the 120 tanks the Soviets had committed, 30 were lost to air attack. [2] : 75



wikiHow to Make an Email Account

Four Methods:Sample Email TemplatesMaking an Email AccountGathering ContactsSending an EmailCommunity Q&A

Have you ever wondered how to create your own email account? Thousands of emails are sent every day, all around the world, and many services across the web aren't usable without an email address. Using this guide, you should be able to complete the simple process of creating your very own email account in no time.

Sample Email Templates

Thank You Email Template

Out of Office Email Template

Business Agenda Template


1
Making an Email Account

  1. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 1
    1
    Visit a website that offers an email service. Notable ones are yahoo.com, google.com, and hotmail.com, all of which are free forever.
  2. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 2
    2
    Find where to sign up. Usually, there is a small link image or text that says "register" or "sign up," although you may have to go to the login page to find this.
    • Type in "free email account" and the website of your choice into a search engine. Click on the appropriate link, hopefully bringing you to the setup page for the desired email account.
  3. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 3
    3
    Follow all the instructions on the page, filling out all the needed details. In some cases, you may feel uncomfortable letting out certain information. Don't worry, most of the time email accounts do not need information such as telephone and street address, and you can skip these completely.
  4. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 4
    4
    Read over the service agreement and click the box saying that you agree to abide by the email system's rules. Once completed, click on the Submit or Enter button at the bottom of the screen.
  5. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 5
    5
    Congratulations! You have now created an email address. Continue on to import your contacts, message with friends, or write emails, plus much more.

2
Gathering Contacts

  1. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 6
    1
    Tell your friends and family about your new email, gather their information and add them to your contacts list. Note that many email accounts nowadays save your contacts automatically when you send email to or receive email from a person or institution.
    • To bring up contacts, find the contacts tab or simply type in the first or last name of the person you want to email, or the beginning of their email address. Their email address and contact information should automatically pop up.
      • This often means you don't have to "save" someone as a contact in order to send them an email.
  2. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 7
    2
    Import your contacts if you're changing email accounts. Navigate to your Contacts tab, and find the import button; then follow any directions that follow. Usually it's as easy as dragging and dropping a .CSV file into your browser window.

3
Sending an Email

  1. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 8
    1
    Find the "Compose" button once logged in to your email account. It shouldn't be too hard to find; often it's a different-colored button.
  2. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 9
    2
    Type in the email address of the person you want to send an email to. If you don't remember the person's email address but have previously sent them an email, your account might recognize the saved email address if you begin to type in their name.
    • If you want to copy a person on the email, hit "CC," which stands for "carbon copy."
    • If you want to copy a person on the email without the original recipient knowing that you've copied the email, hit "BCC," which stands for "blind carbon copy."
  3. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 10
    3
    Include a subject. This is what the email is about or concerning.
  4. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 11
    4
    Type the message, or body, of your email. This is your communication or what you want to explain to the other person.
  5. Image titled Make an Email Account Step 12
    5
    After double-checking for errors, click "Send." Make sure your contact's email address is correct, and that your message contains no spelling mistakes or formatting errors. Send your email.

Community Q&A

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  • How do I create an email?
    wikiHow Contributor
    There is a circle at the top left of Google. Click that, and it will pop up (Create Account).
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  • What are the different components of an email?
    wikiHow Contributor
    Formally, the components of an email are much like those of a letter. You have a greeting or acknowledgement followed by a comma, then the body, then the salutations and signature. Informally, you really don't need to use a particular structure. If you need to send a file or picture, you'll have to use the attachment function.
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    wikiHow Contributor
    Go to any website for email, enter your information and register your account.
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    wikiHow Contributor
    If there is something wrong with your current email, change it. You could go in your email account section and make changes, or you could create a new email account all together.
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    Yes, you can.
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    Usually, you have to be at least 13 years old, but email services such as Yahoo! and Outlook have no age limit.
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    Tips

    • Email them your new address so that they would have a new ability to contact you.
    • Make sure that you have the correct email address from your friends and family so that you can email them.
    • If you want any notifications, a good site program for this would be Google Alerts. You can sign up to have free alerts, and news about any topic you want.
    • Soon, you'll have plenty of emails to fill your inbox.

    Warnings

    • Don't keep constantly checking your new email for a new message. This will only make you more desperate for mail.
    • Don't be too desperate if your inbox is empty. It takes time to get emails.
    • Make your e-mail easy to remember.
    • Don't send e-mails to people you don't know.
    • Do not delay your email because when you check again,your inbox may be too full!
    • Do not waste your email by checking every 2-4 months or so,because a lot of email service providers shut down your account after a certain amount of time that your account has been inactive. But the least that you could do to make sure that your account stays active,is to check it every month.
    • Don't be too desperate about emailing. People have lives and may not reply to every tiny email.

    Things You'll Need

    • A computer.
    • Internet access.
    • An email service provider (e.g. Hotmail, Yahoo, GMail, Aim, AOL, etc.)

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    Categories: Email and Instant Messaging

    In other languages:

    Español: hacer un correo electrónico, Português: Criar um E‐mail, Italiano: Creare un Account di Posta Elettronica, Nederlands: Een mailaccount aanmaken en e–mail versturen, Deutsch: Eine Email Account erstellen, Русский: создать адрес электронной почты, Bahasa Indonesia: Membuat Email, Français: créer un compte mail, हिन्दी: ईमेल खाता बनाएँ, ไทย: สมัครอีเมล, Tiếng Việt: Tạo một Tài khoản Email, 한국어: 이메일 계정 만드는 법, العربية: إنشاء بريد إليكتروني, Čeština: Jak vytvořit emailový účet

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